5+ – No guarantee of rights due to breakdown of the rule of law
The ITUC Global Rights Index


The ITUC does not have an affiliate in Sudan.

Sudan faced two prolonged civil wars rooted in ethnic and tribal divisions as well as northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese.
The second civil war which lasted over two decades and caused the death of about 2 million people ended with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed between the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the government in 2005. The people of the south voted for independence in a referendum and Sudan split into two countries in July 2011.
However, clashes between the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) continued and deteriorated in early 2012, in particular in the three border states of Abyei, Southern Kordofan, and Blue Nile. Mass killings, sexual and gender-based violence led to serious human rights violations and a humanitarian crisis.
A separate conflict broke out in Darfur in 2003 as tensions surrounding the use of land and water resources exploded between the sedentary tribes and the nomadic Arab tribes. The Sudanese government reacted with massive military operations and by supporting and arming the nomadic Arab militia, the Janjaweed. It is estimated that 300,000 people have lost their lives since the beginning of the conflict and that more than 2.7 million have been displaced.
The signing of the Doha Darfur Peace Document between the government and some armed opposition groups was regarded as progress towards resolving the conflict but did not end the violence in the region. In early 2013, three separate conflicts broke out, in particular over newly discovered gold and the distribution of positions in the administration.
The International Criminal Court has issued an arrest warrant against President Al Bashir for the perpetration of crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocide during the military counter-insurgency campaign which targeted the civilian population of Darfur between 2003 and 2008.
It is impossible for workers to enjoy their rights in a country where governmental institutions have fundamentally failed to hold those who are responsible for systematic violations of human rights and humanitarian law accountable. Respect for the rule of law is essential when it comes to the protection of the rights of workers.

In practice

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Warrap Governor suspends workers’ trade union28-04-2013

Nyandeng Malek, the Governor of South Sudan’s Warrap State issued a decree suspending the workers’ trade union, after the latter opposed a decision to withhold one day’s salary from all state employees in order to raise money for the upcoming Greater Bahr el Ghazal sports tournament. According to the Constitution, the salary cut should have been discussed by the State Council of Ministers or the Assembly.

Dismal rights record31-12-2011

Sudan is a non-democratic, authoritarian country whose human and trade union rights record is a matter of serious concern. Trade unionists outside the pro-government trade unions live under constant fear and do not dare denounce inhumane work conditions. Independent trade unionists are not able to participate in international trade union meetings for fear of reprisal when they return home. Accurate information about the numbers of trade unionists in prison and their whereabouts is difficult to obtain . Doctors went on strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
during the year in frustration at repeated broken promises by the health ministry over pay and conditions. They were clearly expecting the worst: the former president of the Physicians Committee, Ahmad Al-Abwabi, urged security agencies not to attack doctors by arresting or beating them up as has happened in the past.

SWTUF colludes in government surveillance of oil workers31-12-2010

In the oil-producing regions, police and secret service agents closely monitor workers’ activities in collusion with oil companies. These regions are designated “high security areas”, where the free movement of people has been effectively curtailed. The official Sudan Workers’ Trade Union Federation (SWTUF) is used as part of the government’s strategy to control workers in order to ensure a regular flow of oil. Part of the revenue from this oil has been ploughed back into financing the war efforts in the Darfur region. The SWTUF has consistently supported government denials that mass murder has taken place in Darfur, where workers have not even dared to approach the SWTUF for protection.

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