5 – No guarantee of rights
The ITUC Global Rights Index

Cambodia

The ITUC affiliates in Cambodia are the Cambodia Confederation of Trade Unions (CCTU), the Cambodian Confederation of Unions (CCU) and the Cambodian Labour Confederation (CLC).

In practice

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Union registrations stalled30-04-2014

In April 2014, Human Rights Watch raised concerns that the Cambodian government has sharply limited registrations of unions. Human Rights Watch’s findings are based on official government license registrations since 2011 and interviews with union leaders and representatives.

Independent union independent union A trade union that is not affiliated to a national union. Can also be a union that is not dominated by an employer.

See yellow union

federations have raised concerns about a de facto suspension of union registration. This was supported by Labour Ministry data that suggested a dramatic reduction in union registrations in December 2013. Officials could provide no information on new registrations in 2014, but said between 50 and 60 applications were pending. Under Cambodian law, the ability of unions to operate is severely curtailed without official registration.

The slowdown in union registrations may reflect revisions being made to the regulation on union registration, Prakas 21, Human Rights Watch said. Union representatives told Human Rights Watch that ministry officials were not accepting applications for union registration or union leadership changes while registration procedures were being revised. They said the government has not consulted with federations about changes to the regulation.

Recent demands made by government regulators on union federation officials suggest that Cambodia’s Labour Ministry is placing unnecessarily burdensome procedures on union registration and leadership changes. Among these are obtaining a certificate from the Ministry of Justice proving that each union representative has no criminal record, which could be a prolonged process.

Proposed union representatives awaiting this certificate are often at risk of retaliation from factory management, independent unions told Human Rights Watch. Further extending the waiting period increases the risk of harassment and possible firings.

200 workers protest against discrimination against union members08-04-2014

On 8 April 2014, 200 workers at Banjamat Construction Company went on strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
and protested in front of the factory in Kampot province, demanding major pay increases and for fired unionists to be reinstated.

Ty Yann, secretary of the Building and Wood Workers Trade Union Confederation (BWTUC), said workers were protesting against the company’s discrimination against union members.

Banjamat employees and BWTUC leaders, Chhun Pov and Tep Mao, were fired in November 2010, just one month after forming a union. Yann said the remaining employees had feared similar treatment ever since.

“In fact, the court and Arbitration arbitration A means of resolving disputes outside the courts through the involvement of a neutral third party, which can either be a single arbitrator or an arbitration board. In non-binding arbitration, the disputing parties are free to reject the third party’s recommendation, whilst in binding arbitration they are bound by its decision. Compulsory arbitration denotes the process where arbitration is not voluntarily entered into by the parties, but is prescribed by law or decided by the authorities.

See conciliation, mediation
Council ordered K Cement factory to reinstate the workers ... but the company did not agree. It makes other workers fear that the company discriminates against the union,” Yann said.

Six union representatives charged over protest to scare others from organising 06-05-2014

On 6 May 2014, the Kompong Speu Provincial Court charged six union representatives with incitement over a protest near the Wing Star Shoes factory that day, in a move unions say was unjustified and meant to intimidate.

Court prosecutor Keo Sothea said all six were charged with threatening to commit a crime and inciting a felony for allegedly encouraging the factory workers to block a road during their protest for back pay back pay Wages or benefits due an employee for past employment. Often awarded when the employee has been unfairly dismissed. Not to be confused with retroactive pay (delayed payment for work previously done at a lower wage rate). and more benefits.

The men were arrested while setting up loudspeakers for the protest.

Sath Chheang Hour, president of the Cambodia National Confederation for Labor Protection, said all seven were officers in two partner unions. Four of the arrested men belonged to the Khmer Worker Power Federation Union, and two belonged to the Cambodia Solidarity Union Federation. The unions said the arrests were clearly meant to scare them out of organising organising The process of forming or joining a trade union, or inducing other workers to form or join one. legitimate strikes.

“The government is afraid and concerned about the wave of worker protests since they can’t stop it,” said Chea Mony, president of the Free Trade Union of Workers of the Kingdom of Cambodia.

Force used to end Veng Sreng strike02-05-2014

On 2 May 2014, paramilitary forces from Brigade 70 broke up a strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
of 100 employees at Pemir Garment Factory on Veng Sreng Boulevard.

The workers were demanding a lunch bonus and an end to forced overtime.
Cheng Sophavy, an officer at the Collective Union of Movement of Workers (CUMW), said:

“They did not settle with workers; they deployed paramilitary forces instead. They do so to discourage us and force us back to work.”

Worker representative Chan Saban, 21, said: “We protested without any brute force, so using soldiers to crack down is not right.”

May Day event not sanctioned; Ministry threatens – and uses – force to disperse gathering 02-05-2014

Around 20 unions requested permission from the Phnom Penh City Hall to stage a gathering at Freedom Park on 1 May 2014. The request was denied.

According to a Ministry of Interior spokesperson, “The authorities would not give permission because it would affect our security.”

“If they are stubborn, they have to bear the consequences” and “be responsible before the law,” he said, indicating that force may be used to disperse any gathering at Freedom Park on May 1.

A spokesperson from the City Hall indicated that the authorities did not authorise the gathering because they were still investigating the January violence at the venue.

On 2 May 2014, the Phnom Penh Post reported that police and security forces injured at least five people at a Labour Day rally next to Freedom Park. The injuries occurred when the police and security forces (some in civilian dress) violently broke up the rally using batons and cattle prods.

More than 1,500 people had gathered around Naga Bridge on Norodom Boulevard at about 9 a.m. to voice demands for better working conditions and wages, and to greet the arrival of opposition leaders Sam Rainsy, Kem Sokha and Mu Sochua.

At about 10 a.m., after the Cambodia National Rescue Party leaders had left, more than 100 helmeted Daun Penh district security guards, along with municipal police and plain-clothed men wielding wooden batons, metal poles and cattle prods, were deployed to disperse the thinning crowd.

On Street 108, security guards were seen beating people over the head with batons at random. One man was dragged off his motorbike and beaten on the ground by a crowd of district security guards in front of journalists and NGO workers.

Government establishes new Committee and introduces new law to clamp down on union activity31-10-2014

In early 2014, the government appointed the heads of the armed forces to a new Committee to Solve Strikes and Demonstrations, which threatens to militarise future government responses to strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
activity and demonstrations. Following the 2-3 January strikes, the government has repeatedly used force to break up demonstrations and rallies, and has detained trade union leaders for participating in those events.

Further limitations on trade union activity were being developed through a review of the laws regulating trade unions. A draft of the Trade Union Law made public in May was reviewed by the International Labour Organization International Labour Organization A tripartite United Nations (UN) agency established in 1919 to promote working and living conditions. The main international body charged with developing and overseeing international labour standards.

See tripartism, ITUC Guide to international trade union rights
, which said that it fell well short of meeting international conventions signed by Cambodia that ensure the right to assemble and unionise.

At a workshop on the draft union law for government, factory and union representatives in Phnom Penh in May, ILO International Labour Organization A tripartite United Nations (UN) agency established in 1919 to promote working and living conditions. The main international body charged with developing and overseeing international labour standards.

See tripartism, ITUC Guide to international trade union rights
labour relations specialist John Ritchotte said it failed to comply with Cambodia’s ILO International Labour Organization A tripartite United Nations (UN) agency established in 1919 to promote working and living conditions. The main international body charged with developing and overseeing international labour standards.

See tripartism, ITUC Guide to international trade union rights
convention obligations on several points and was actually a step backward compared to earlier versions.

The proposed law gives the country’s courts broad power to revoke union licenses. It also stipulates that at least 20 per cent of employees at an enterprise must agree to join a union before it is allowed to register with the Ministry of Labour. It also stipulates that only one union may exist per workplace. The existing law did not require a minimum number of members to set up in a single workplace, and did not limit the number of unions.

“It seems to lock many out from creating unions,” Pav Sina, president of the Collective Union of Movement of Workers, said.

The rule could lead to wide-scale dominance of government-loyal unions and seriously hamper those that are independent, Cambodian Confederation of Unions president Rong Chhun said.

In October 2014, the Interior Minister Sar Kheng indicated to factory owners and investors that he would work with the Labour Ministry to push through the draft Trade Union law to give the government more control over unions and the courts’ power to revoke the registration of unions deemed to be acting illegally.

Bus company fires 17 employees for forming union, rejects court order to reinstate 1504-07-2014

Sorya Transportation, a bus company based in Phnom Penh, fired 17 employees for trying to form a bus drivers’ union at the company in April 2014.

More than 60 people went on strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
following the sackings, demanding reinstatements, a salary rise and several other points. Most drivers later returned to work, leaving only those who had been terminated to continue protesting.

The vice president of the bus driver union, Yem Kuyba, filed a lawsuit with Phnom Penh Municipal Court in April, which was forwarded to the Arbitration arbitration A means of resolving disputes outside the courts through the involvement of a neutral third party, which can either be a single arbitrator or an arbitration board. In non-binding arbitration, the disputing parties are free to reject the third party’s recommendation, whilst in binding arbitration they are bound by its decision. Compulsory arbitration denotes the process where arbitration is not voluntarily entered into by the parties, but is prescribed by law or decided by the authorities.

See conciliation, mediation
Council.

On 4 July 2014, the Arbitration arbitration A means of resolving disputes outside the courts through the involvement of a neutral third party, which can either be a single arbitrator or an arbitration board. In non-binding arbitration, the disputing parties are free to reject the third party’s recommendation, whilst in binding arbitration they are bound by its decision. Compulsory arbitration denotes the process where arbitration is not voluntarily entered into by the parties, but is prescribed by law or decided by the authorities.

See conciliation, mediation
Council ruled that the bus company must rehire 15 workers and pay benefits according to the law to the other two.

Sorya Transportation general manager Chan Sophanna said he would only rehire the workers if the council helped him pay their salaries.

“If I accept them back, who will help me to pay their salary? If [the Arbitration arbitration A means of resolving disputes outside the courts through the involvement of a neutral third party, which can either be a single arbitrator or an arbitration board. In non-binding arbitration, the disputing parties are free to reject the third party’s recommendation, whilst in binding arbitration they are bound by its decision. Compulsory arbitration denotes the process where arbitration is not voluntarily entered into by the parties, but is prescribed by law or decided by the authorities.

See conciliation, mediation
Council] helps me pay their salary, then I will agree with them,” Sophanna said. “I do business to make a profit, not lose money, so if they try to force me to accept this, I will appeal to a higher court.”

Leader of biggest independent union ordered not to meet with workers, engage in public activities30-09-2014

In September 2014, Ath Thorn, president of the Coalition of Cambodian Apparel Workers’ Democratic Union (CCAWDU), was placed under judicial supervision by the Phnom Penh Municipal Court.

The court’s decision was made a day after Thorn joined demonstrations calling for $177 monthly minimum wage for garment workers.

Thorn is on trial for charges of causing intentional violence, making threats, destroying property and obstructing traffic. The charges relate to his alleged role in three different union actions: the January 2014 protests in special export processing zones where six were killed; the April 2014 protests against SL Garment Processing; and minimum wage protests on 18 September 2014.

Thorn was already under orders not to join gatherings or meet with union members. Those orders were made by the Phnom Penh Municipal Court in April 2014, and required Thorn to stay away from the SL Garment Processing factory and to avoid public gatherings that could “damage public order”. He is alleged to have breached those orders by taking part in protests on 18 September.

“If I cannot lead workers or meet with them, then what can I do? As a president of a union, this is serious punishment for me,” he said.

This followed an earlier decision of the court to require Thorn to post a $25,000 bail in order to stay out of pre-trial detention.

Thorn is the third union leader to be subjected to a court order prohibiting participation in public gatherings until their trial concludes.

The CCAWDU is the largest independent trade union in Cambodia.

Widespread harassment of workers for union activity30-06-2014

In June 2014, international trade union groups reported that approximately 200 workers had been fired since January 2014 for their involvement in trade union activity. While some have been reinstated, many remain dismissed.

Smart Tech, a bicycle factory in Bavet City, fired 45 workers for their involvement in a strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
for better pay and conditions. In April 2014, it also paid workers $50 for not participating in a particular strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
. It was one of many factories in special economic zones in Svay Rieng and Kampong Cham to have made the payment. One employee indicated:

“The factory also promised us that if we do not protest for another three months we will get $25. So we will not protest or strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
, but if other workers [at my factory] protest, I will join them.”

Civil and criminal complaints have been lodged by garment manufacturers against unions which protested the inadequacy of the minimum wage even though there is no evidence that the targeted unions (all of which are independent of the ruling party) either called for or condoned any of the property damaged cause – likely caused by pro-government provocateurs.

Additionally, garment manufacturers have harassed unionists by lodging baseless claims. In May 2014, a newspaper reported that 17 labour activists had been detained since February 2014, including nine in the week leading up to 24 May 2014.

“Despite assurances from the government in February, there have since been unprecedented levels of intimidation, violence, and a declining respect for the rule of law, which together constitute a grave attack on union and worker rights,” said Jyrki Raina, secretary general of In-dustriALL, in a statement.

Six killed, 38 hospitalised and 23 arrested in police crackdown on protest for workers’ rights20-10-2014

On 2-3 January 2014, the government of Cambodia used lethal violence to quash strikes and demonstrations that erupted after the government announced a new minimum wage far below what government-supported research suggested was an adequate wage.

Most garment workers are mired in poverty even after working excessively long hours. The protestors were seeking an increase of the monthly minimum wage to $160, state protection of labour rights and the right to freedom of association freedom of association The right to form and join the trade union of one’s choosing as well as the right of unions to operate freely and carry out their activities without undue interference.

See Guide to the ITUC international trade union rights framework
.

Heavily armed police and soldiers mobilised, killing six and hospitalising at least 38.

The government has since established a committee to investigate the killings and injuries, but as it lacks independence few expect any meaningful results. To date, the government has failed to provide compensation to the victims and the families of the dead.

Additionally, 23 workers were arrested for participating in the strikes and demonstrations and charged with the criminal offences of aggravated violence, damage to public property, and insulting civil servants, among other charges.

Despite repeated appeals from the UN, NGOs and trade unions, 21 workers remained in prison for nearly six months, denied bail despite the fact that some of the workers required urgent medical attention arising from injuries sustained from being beaten by police during the protests. One of the detainees died from his injuries in May 2014. Another accused, Meas Nun, was a minor throughout his detention and suffers from a developmental disability.

The workers were tried in a legal process rife with serious procedural irregularities that undermined their right to a fair trial. As late as 28 April 2014, the families of the accused reported that, although they had been detained for months, police had only questioned four of the accused.

On 30 May, the government sentenced all 23 (plus two more involved in a strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
in November) to between four to five years’ imprisonment. However, due to international pressure, the sentences were suspended and all of them are free. Nine of them then went to receive medical care in Thailand for injuries sustained during the protests, paid for by rights group Licadho.

The UN High Commission for Human Rights in Cambodia and the ILO International Labour Organization A tripartite United Nations (UN) agency established in 1919 to promote working and living conditions. The main international body charged with developing and overseeing international labour standards.

See tripartism, ITUC Guide to international trade union rights
jointly stated that, “[we] are concerned about the criminal conviction of all 25 individuals, in view of the apparent procedural shortcomings in all three trials and the lack of evidence establishing direct responsibility of the individuals for the actions of which they were nevertheless found guilty. Furthermore, in a number of cases, the evidence indicates that individuals were arrested when simply exercising their fundamental rights to freedom of expression and peaceful assembly, while defending workers’ socio-economic interests.”

Unions remain concerned that the convictions will be used as a tool to limit or prohibit their future exercise of the right to associate lest they be imprisoned.

On 20 October 2014, the Phnom Penh Post reported that many of the 23 workers arrested over the January strikes were broke and out of jobs. Some claim they have been excluded from the garment sector completely. One of the convicted, Ros Sophorn, stated that he had applied to more than 20 factories since his release and had been rejected by all.

Ros said: “I’ve applied for jobs with garment factories, but they say my name was rejected because I was detained in the prison and other factories would not accept men because they are afraid they will start protests. I think my name was blacklisted, that’s why no factory accepts me.”

Further, 170 factories, represented by the Garment Manufacturers Association in Cambodia (GMAC), filed a court complaint against the union leaders for their alleged involvement in the 10-day strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
. The complaints included claims of intention violence in aggravating circumstances during the January strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
.

In October 2014, the Minister of Labour Ith Sam Heng indicated that he would encourage the factories to drop the criminal complaints.

Workers beaten on May Day09-02-2015

At least five people were injured during May Day celebrations outside Freedom Park. Hundreds of police officers were deployed and the park was surrounded with barbed wire to bar protesters. Police and security forces intervened violently against around 1,500 people demanding better working conditions and wages. According to the Overseas Press Club of Cambodia, at least three journalists were attacked by police.

Police brutality12-11-2013

On 12 November 2013, workers, employed at SL Garment, marched to the Prime Minister’s residence demanding better pay and working conditions. Heavily armed police responded by using live bullets and tear gas to disperse the marchers. A woman who was selling rice at the side of the road was shot and killed. The Prime Minister argued that protests would put the garment industry under risk by encouraging companies to relocate to countries with lower labour costs.

Acts of anti-union discrimination16-08-2013
Physical assaults against trade unionists16-08-2013

A gunman opened fire against 1,000 workers from three different factories who were demonstrating in favour of better working conditions. The alleged perpetrator Chhouk Bandith, governor of the Bavet region, was charged with “unintentional injury”.

Sanctions against strike action30-09-2012
Dismissal for participating in a strike30-07-2013
Violation of collective agreement30-07-2013
No civil service unions28-12-2011
Labour relations undermined by corruption24-12-2011

Branch union representatives are occasionally offered large sums of money to join the ranks of a yellow union yellow union A union set up and/or controlled by the employer to prevent the establishment of a genuine trade union. during labour disputes, as seen during the Cambrew strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
(see violations section). In some instances, when workers whose union rights have been violated receive a favourable ruling from the Arbitration arbitration A means of resolving disputes outside the courts through the involvement of a neutral third party, which can either be a single arbitrator or an arbitration board. In non-binding arbitration, the disputing parties are free to reject the third party’s recommendation, whilst in binding arbitration they are bound by its decision. Compulsory arbitration denotes the process where arbitration is not voluntarily entered into by the parties, but is prescribed by law or decided by the authorities.

See conciliation, mediation
Council, such as reinstatement following an unfair dismissal, they are offered money to renounce these rights. Huey Chen is one of the companies that deployed this tactic in 2011 (see violations section).

Several sources report that regular and non-official payments are made by Ministry representatives to the leaders of yellow unions or unions close to the government. Although it is difficult to independently verify this information, these alleged payments may go some way towards explaining the proliferation in the number of trade union federations in Cambodia, which is weakening the quality of worker representation.

Yellow unions23-12-2011

The establishment of yellow unions is another tactic widely deployed by companies to prevent the emergence of genuine worker representation. These yellow unions or unions close to the government have no difficulty registering their organisations, unlike independent unions. The latter often have to wait over a year to be registered whilst yellow unions are registered within a day or two. Workers are often placed under heavy pressure to join yellow unions.

Subcontractors fiercely opposed to unionisation22-12-2011

According to the Coalition of Cambodian Apparel Workers’ Democratic Union (C.CAWDU), over half of all garment factories are subcontractors working for export manufacturers. Most of these subcontractors are fiercely opposed to the formation of unions and do not respect the labour legislation. Some of these factories use child labour.

Intimidation used to stop strikes and demonstrations 31-12-2010

Unions planning to hold a strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
or demonstration often face intimidation. They can, for example, be threatened with prosecution: there is a growing trend among employers of taking trade union representatives to court in the event of a strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
and demanding the payment of astronomical sums supposedly in compensation for the losses incurred during the work stoppage. The heavy presence of armed police, ready to use force, is another method used to intimidate striking workers, even though violent strikes are very rare.

Collusion between some employers and the police can be enough to dissuade workers from going on strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
. Many workers’ demonstrations are cancelled owing to acts of intimidation and harassment by employers or the local authorities, which are often closely linked.

Trade union rights violated with impunity 31-12-2010

In spite of some progress thanks to initiatives such as ILO International Labour Organization A tripartite United Nations (UN) agency established in 1919 to promote working and living conditions. The main international body charged with developing and overseeing international labour standards.

See tripartism, ITUC Guide to international trade union rights
projects and the efforts of certain international buyers, working conditions and respect for trade union rights in the clothing industry (Cambodia’s biggest sector) are still poor, particularly in subcontracted operations.

In many factories, trade unionists continue to face serious repression, including death threats, dismissals, blacklisting, false charges to bring them before the courts, wage deductions and exclusion from promotion, etc. The government very rarely prosecutes or imposes penalties on employers for anti-union practices. Labour inspectors are poorly trained and, given their low pay, are open to bribery.

The Coalition of Cambodian Apparel Workers Democratic Union (C.CAWDU) reported the suspension or dismissal of 257 of its trade union leaders during 2010. In the case of the Free Trade Union of Workers of the Kingdom of Cambodia, the total reaches 65 (32 of whom are women), and includes ordinary members. The FTUWKC also reported physical attacks and threats against six of its members and trade union representative during 2010.

Short term contracts becoming widespread and weakening trade unions 30-11-2009

Many permanent contracts are being replaced by short term contracts (one to six months) allowing employers to avoid applying labour legislation. Furthermore, workers are reluctant to join unions for fear of not having their contract renewed. The government has proposed amending the legislation to enable enterprises to employ workers indefinitely on short term contracts rather than the de facto two year limit. In face of the many protests the proposal provoked, the amendments had not been adopted by the end of 2009.

Parody of justice18-02-2009

On 31 December 2008, the Supreme Court of Cambodia finally ordered the release (on bail) of Born Samnang and Sok Sam Oeun, who had spent nearly five years behind bars, falsely charged with murdering the leader of the Free Trade Union of Workers of the Kingdom of Cambodia (FTUWKC) Chea Vichea (see the 2009 edition of the Annual Survey). It also sent the case back to the Court of Appeal to be retried. On 17 August the Court of Appeal decided that the two men could remain free on bail and that the case should be re-examined, but without specifying which court would be responsible.

On 18 February, the Court of Appeal confirmed the 15-year prison sentence handed down to Chan Sopheak (also known as Thach Saveth) for the murder of Ros Sovannareth, also a leader of the FTUWKC. He was sentenced in 2005 in a trial that violated the most basic standards for a fair trial.

Social dialogue often difficult30-11-2009

Collective bargaining collective bargaining The process of negotiating mutually acceptable terms and conditions of employment as well as regulating industrial relations between one or more workers’ representatives, trade unions, or trade union centres on the one hand and an employer, a group of employers or one or more employers’ organisations on the other.

See collective bargaining agreement
is dogged by difficulties and few unions have managed to conclude an enforceable agreement. Management at Tack Fat Garment refused to meet trade union representatives from the Coalition of Cambodian Apparel Workers’ Democratic Union (C.CAWDU) between February and October after is suspended 1.823 workers without paying them due compensation. The union coalition wanted to find a compromise.

Strikes repressed30-11-2009

Although the government generally tolerates strikes, when the police are called on to intervene they do not hesitate to use violence and make arrests. Company security guards and hired thugs are also responsible for violently repressing strikes. Furthermore, the connivance between some employers and the police can be enough to dissuade workers from going on strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
.

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