5 – No guarantee of rights
The ITUC Global Rights Index

Egypt

The ITUC does not have an affiliate in Egypt.

In practice

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Major manoeuvres against independent trade unions15-12-2015

Although the 2015 report of the ILO International Labour Organization A tripartite United Nations (UN) agency established in 1919 to promote working and living conditions. The main international body charged with developing and overseeing international labour standards.

See tripartism, ITUC Guide to international trade union rights
Committee on Freedom of Association freedom of association The right to form and join the trade union of one’s choosing as well as the right of unions to operate freely and carry out their activities without undue interference.

See Guide to the ITUC international trade union rights framework
requests that “the draft labour law be adopted as a matter of priority, giving clear legislative protection to the numerous newly formed independent trade unions and ensuring full respect for freedom of association freedom of association The right to form and join the trade union of one’s choosing as well as the right of unions to operate freely and carry out their activities without undue interference.

See Guide to the ITUC international trade union rights framework
rights”, the attacks against these organisations have since been stepped up.

At the end of 2015, the Centre for Trade Unions and Workers’ Services (CTUWS) denounced a renewed attempt to muzzle independent trade unions. In an official document, the Presidency recommended that his ministers hold monthly meetings with ETUF representatives, in the presence of the media, to highlight the government’s supposed resolve to defend workers’ rights.

As part of the surge to quash trade unionism, on 1 March, a government directive gave all state institutions instructions not to recognise independent trade unions nor to deal with them, and to invalidate any seals appearing on their documents. These organisations are also fighting for their survival in the courts. A critical verdict is awaited in 2016 in the court case pitting an official trade union against an independent union independent union A trade union that is not affiliated to a national union. Can also be a union that is not dominated by an employer.

See yellow union

in the finance sector.

Finally, at political level, during a cabinet reshuffle on March 2016, the post of Manpower Minister was given to Mohamed Saafan, who was formerly vice-president of the ETUF and who has never concealed his hostility towards independent trade unions. The appointment of a leading figure from the official trade union centre trade union centre A central organisation at the national, regional or district level consisting of affiliated trade unions. Often denotes a national federation or confederation. marks the return of a long tradition that had been left behind for five years.

On 8 April, the ILO International Labour Organization A tripartite United Nations (UN) agency established in 1919 to promote working and living conditions. The main international body charged with developing and overseeing international labour standards.

See tripartism, ITUC Guide to international trade union rights
, through its director-general, Guy Ryder, expressed its grave concern over the threats against human and trade union rights in a country that has ratified Conventions 87 and 98. A few days earlier, the ILO International Labour Organization A tripartite United Nations (UN) agency established in 1919 to promote working and living conditions. The main international body charged with developing and overseeing international labour standards.

See tripartism, ITUC Guide to international trade union rights
Workers’ Group had already issued a declaration in this respect. It denounced the “systematic attacks” led by the Labour Ministry against independent trade unions. The ETUF reacted by describing these criticisms as “unwarranted interference in Egyptian affairs”.

Murder of Giulio Regeni03-02-2016

On 3 February, the body of this young Italian PhD student, who was researching the independent trade union movement in Egypt, was found in a ditch on the outskirts of Cairo. He had disappeared on 25 January, the anniversary of the “Egyptian revolution”. He has just published an article on the Nena News site on strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
action in Egypt and the search for trade union unity. His murder sparked international outrage. In a protest letter, the ITUC underlined, “It is clear from the intensification of measures hostile to freedom and the freedoms of trade unions in particular, that Giulio was considered a threat to the Egyptian government.” At the end of March, the authorities announced that police had shot down five men identified as the perpetrators of the crime, but, for many, the murder bears the hallmark of the Egyptian security services. According to human rights organisations, hundreds of Egyptians were the victims of forced disappearances during the last few months of 2015 alone. In the best of cases, they reappear days or weeks later. Many, however, do not have this good fortune and are left to rot or die in high security prisons

Doctors’ union activist imprisoned14-01-2016

On 14 January 2016, in the run-up to the fifth anniversary of the “25 January revolution”, Dr Taher Mokhtar, a member of the Egyptian doctors’ union, and two of his friends were arrested in their home in Cairo for possession of subversive documents. They were, in fact, leaflets denouncing the health conditions in prisons, an issue the trade unionist had been actively working on at the request of his organisation. On 2 March, despite an international campaign, the three men were detained for a further 45 days.
It should be noted that the trade union had defied the ban on demonstrations, on 12 February, when several thousand doctors gathered in front of their union head office to protest against police violence and, more particularly, the assault by two police officers on two doctors in a hospital.

Public sector unionists threatened and virtually muzzled10-08-2015

On 10 August, in Cairo, thousands of workers challenged the authorities and the very harsh restrictions on freedom of assembly by gathering in front of the headquarters of Egypt’s Press Syndicate, historically a focal point of social protest as, by definition, it implies that the protests it hosts will be given press coverage. The demonstrators, public sector workers (finance, social insurance, railways, etc.) affiliated to independent trade unions were protesting against the new Civil Service Law that came into force in late July without any labour consultation and that, as many feared, was set to push down wage levels. The new law also places the six to seven million public sector workers in a weaker position relative to their employers. A ban was imposed on a similar demonstration planned for 17 August. September 5 was therefore set as the new date for the public protest against this law.

The context surrounding the 5 September protest speaks volumes about the state of freedom of expression and assembly in Egypt in 2015. The organisers were denied authorisation to carry out their action on Tahrir Square or in front of the offices of the Press Syndicate. They were forced to fall back on Fustat Park, one of only two locations authorised by Cairo’s governor, both quite isolated, difficult to access and well out of public view. According to eyewitnesses, busloads of protestors, some of whom came from the provinces, were blocked and turned away by the police. At the location itself, security forces denied access to demonstrators under the pretext that maintenance works were underway. This was later denied. After negotiating for an hour, they were finally granted access through a secondary entrance. In the days leading up to the protest, countless attempts were made by the authorities, the official trade union centre trade union centre A central organisation at the national, regional or district level consisting of affiliated trade unions. Often denotes a national federation or confederation. and pro-government media to intimidate the organisers and anyone planning to take part in the demonstration.

The press, like unions, under fire22-07-2015

On 22 July, Abu Bakr Khalar, founder of the Electronic Media Syndicate, was arrested at the offices of the General Syndicate for Press, Printing and Advertising. Since then, Abu Bakr Khalar has been kept behind bars. He is accused of belonging to the Muslim Brotherhood, promoting its ideology and obtaining funds from Qatar to this end, charges that he fully denies. The Electronic Media Syndicate was created in 2011 and is affiliated to the independent trade union centre trade union centre A central organisation at the national, regional or district level consisting of affiliated trade unions. Often denotes a national federation or confederation. EFITU. In December, it received the backing of the Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), which drew attention to the fact that, after China, Egypt was the country that imprisoned the biggest number of journalists in 2015.

Rights-free Al Arish cement works, one worker killed, three wounded02-06-2015

On 2 June, soldiers opened fire on workers at army owned Al Arish cement factory, killing one and wounding three others. A workplace accident marked the starting point of this fatal blunder. Workers tried to provide assistance to one of their colleagues who had been seriously wounded by heavy equipment. In response to the company’s negligence, a crowd gathered in front of the management’s offices. Several soldiers intervened, randomly opening fire on the crowd. The army and state media claimed the ambulance that arrived on the scene to remove the four wounded workers was attacked by terrorists. This official version however failed to stand up to the video footage and witness accounts widely broadcast on social media. Already in 2014, eight workers had lost their lives in a workplace accident. Al Arish is located in Sinai, a region described by human rights organisations as a rights-free zone.

“Anti-worker” Labour Day and criminalised strike action 01-05-2015

Following the decision of an administrative court on 28 April, three public servants from Garous, in the Monufia governorate, were sent into retirement and 14 others saw their promotions blocked for two years because of their participation in a strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
, allegedly preventing their public service from operating. The court justified its sentence without appeal on the basis of the sharia, “the foremost source of law”, despite the fact that it does not contain any direct reference to striking. According to certain experts, this would be the first time that a civil court would resort to the sharia to deliver a verdict regarding strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
action, leading to fears that this decision may set a precedent.
The day before, during the official May Day celebrations held at the headquarters of the police academy, President el-Sissi, in the presence of ETUF leaders alone, stressed the importance of productivity. The representatives of the highly servile ETUF presented a code of conduct stating, among other things, that “Egypt’s workers are opposed to strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
action and confirm their commitment to social dialogue social dialogue Discussion and co-operation between the social partners on matters of common interest, such as economic and social policy. Involves participation by the state where tripartism is practice. ”. As for independent trade unions and labour activists, they were unable to mobilise for a May Day march in Cairo, due to their organisational weaknesses, the legal barriers and the sizeable presence of antiriot police.

A few documented examples of activists and strikers sanctioned during the first six months of 201530-04-2015

In January, four workers from the state owned Steel and Iron Company in Helwan were transferred to a branch of the same company in Minya, 250 kilometres from their homes. The move was a reprisal taken by their employer who claimed they had incited their colleagues to strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
, obtained illegal foreign funding and threatened the national economy and national security. A few weeks later, Ayman Al Fakhri, an activist arrested in December 2014, received a six-month prison sentence.

On 25 March, in Alexandria, security forces arrested five union activists on the third day of a national strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
by postal workers. Arrest warrants were issued for seven other strikers. The head of the post office in Alexandria reportedly accused them not only of being the instigators of the work stoppages but also of being members of the Muslim Brotherhood, an organisation that has been outlawed in Egypt. These claims have, however, been rejected by the arrested workers’ families, who denounced the police raids carried out on their homes.

On 16 April, Kamal al-Fayoumi, a well-known labour activist employed at the Misr Spinning and Weaving Company, in Mahalla al Kubra, a hotbed of social protest, was sacked for inciting strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
action. A few days later, four more workers were suspended for the same reason. Many of the 18,000 employees are tired of their management’s endless broken promises and are questioning the legitimacy of the ETUF-affiliated company union company union Can be used to describe either an enterprise union or a yellow union. .

On 27 April, Yasser Sayyid Abu al-Saud, who worked for Egypt Gas, in Giza, was arrested close to his home for taking part in a three-week strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
against wage cuts. The ECESR denounced the charges brought against the worker as being politically motivated. He was freed on bail one month later. The Arabic Network for Human Rights Information also documented a number of cases in which companies “fabricated charges” against striking trade unionists.

Fierce repression against unionists and strike leaders30-09-2015

In an interview published on 26 April by the independent online news website Mada Masr, the head of the Egyptian Center for Economic and Social Rights (ECESR), Nadeem Mansour, pointed out that while public opinion remains focused on political parties and activists, the attacks meted out against trade unions are sometimes much fiercer. He points out that workers are not only the victims of threats and sanctions such as transfers or dismissals but are also beaten up, imprisoned and, in the most extreme cases, tortured or killed. According to a research paper from September 2015 drawn up by Fatima Ramadan and Amr Adly for the Carnegie Centre in the Middle East, thousands of workplace activists and trade unionists have been unfairly dismissed over the last two years. It would be impossible to provide a detailed list of all these cases.

Ban on strikes31-12-2015

Today, as in the past, the right to strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
is subject to the approval of the official trade union centre trade union centre A central organisation at the national, regional or district level consisting of affiliated trade unions. Often denotes a national federation or confederation. , the Egyptian Trade Union Federation (ETUF). In other words, legal strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
action is not, in fact, possible, since this organisation backed by the government is relentless in its opposition to strikes and protests. Despite the persistence of strong social protest and regular strikes, all “illegal”, trade union freedoms have been in steady decline since 2013. The pro-government media (the only media able operate freely) severely criticises trade union activism, depicting it as an act of treason against the motherland and presenting union activists as suspected collaborators of the Muslim Brotherhood.

Repression and weakening of independent trade unions31-12-2015

The absence of ITUC affiliated organisations and the country’s unenviable position among the ranks of the world’s ten worst countries in terms of workers’ rights in 2015 confirm any concerns the trade union movement may have regarding respect for trade union freedoms. The hopes that arose in the wake of the January 2011 revolution have faded. There has been no legislative improvement, quite the contrary. The only serious discussions on the adoption of a new trade union law following the overthrow of the Mubarak regime failed to deliver any tangible results. Hundreds of independent trade unions emerged and a presidential decree on trade union freedoms granted them a degree of legitimacy, but this was only temporary. It failed to translate into formal recognition recognition The designation by a government agency of a union as the bargaining agent for workers in a given bargaining unit, or acceptance by an employer that its employees can be collectively represented by a union. that would allow them to develop structures, to be represented with voting rights within leading national bodies such as the National Wages Council and to operate fully as organisations defending workers’ rights. Despite hopes that the wave of social unrest following the ousting of the Muslim Brotherhood in late June 2013 might give renewed impetus to the independent trade union movement, exactly the opposite occurred. In the name of patriotism and the fight against terrorism, all voices of opposition were branded as suspect. As a result, independent trade unionism was either suppressed or stifled. The leaders of these new organisations were “co-opted” by the authorities. The appointment of Kamal Abu-Eita, a leading activist within the national union movement, as the head of the Ministry of Manpower should therefore be seen as part of the state’s take-over strategy..

Security forces injure strikers03-12-2014

Tens of protesting workers were injured and 28 arrested when security forces attacked 500 striking mosque employees who staged a protest outside the Ministry of Awqaf (Religious Endowments) on 3 December 2014. They were protesting at being sacked after refusing to sign documents agreeing to new terms of employment and renouncing social insurance rights.

Nine union members sacked for demanding their rights01-12-2014

Moustafa Al Masri, president of the independent union independent union A trade union that is not affiliated to a national union. Can also be a union that is not dominated by an employer.

See yellow union

at Alico Co. a subsidiary of Orascom group owned by Sawiris, was dismissed on 1 December 2014 for his union activities, notably for calling for the payment of the workers’ incentives and bonuses in line with the company’s regulations. Another eight workers were also dismissed and 98 arbitrarily transferred from Suez to Cairo.

Union leaders arrested and detained for exposing corruption04-12-2014

On 10 November 2014, Mahmoud Rehan, vice president of the Independent Trade Union of Workers at Cairo Airport Company was arrested and detained at the Al Mozah police station. Rehan had been involved in exposing corruption scandals at the airport and organising organising The process of forming or joining a trade union, or inducing other workers to form or join one. protests. On 4 December 2014 the Al Nozha Misdemeanor court decided Rehan was innocent. He had been detained for 24 consecutive days.

Independent union rights rejected28-10-2014

Members of the independent union independent union A trade union that is not affiliated to a national union. Can also be a union that is not dominated by an employer.

See yellow union

at the Drinking Water & Sanitation Company in Qena had their request to establish a housing association for workers rejected because the General Authority for Construction and Housing Cooperatives refused to recognise their union. The letter dated 28 October 2014, and addressed to the General Secretary of the Qena governorate, stated: “Please note that we have received the letter of Mr. Khairy Omar Mohamed, General Secretary of the independent union independent union A trade union that is not affiliated to a national union. Can also be a union that is not dominated by an employer.

See yellow union

of the Drinking Water & Sanitation Company in Qena. Please note that the coordination committee decision was not to permit the establishment of a housing association for members of the independent unions, as these unions are not organised by law. Only members of the union at the company may have a permit for establishing a housing association.”

Penalties for organising protest strike22-10-2014

On 16 October 2014 a penalty of ten days’ salary was imposed on Saied Saad Al Deen, a workers’ leader at the Iron and Steel Company, for inciting a protest on 21 July 2014 and for insulting the company Chairman. On 22 October a ten-day salary penalty was also imposed on Mohamed Omar, who had already been suspended for two months, for inciting workers to go on strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
and for insulting the Chairman. Two other workers, Ayman Ahmed Hefny and Mahoud Abdel Rahman, were sacked and three, Mahmoud Abdel Dayem, Mohamed Nasr and Emad Abdel Haleem, were arbitrarily transferred.

Protesting workers injured by bullets and tear gas01-10-2014

Security forces used excessive force to end a strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
at the Alex Weaving and Spinning Company in Aboud on 1 October 2014. They used bullets and tear gas against the protestors, injuring five workers, including Mohamed Kamal Mahmoud, who was shot in the leg. Four workers were arrested and forced to say that their injuries were caused by a fight between two families.

Workers of the company, which has 3,000 employees, organised a protest in front of their factory after submitting several complaints to the labour office and after trying several times to negotiate the payment of salary arrears. The company Chairman did not attend any of the negotiating sessions, however, and ignored the workers’ demands. When workers decided to conduct a peaceful protest in front of the factory, the Chairman summoned the police, who arrived immediately and began shooting at the protestors.

Prison sentences for protesting workers13-09-2014

The Abdin Misdemeanor Court sentenced 13 employees of the Ministry of Awkaf (Religious Endowments) to two years imprisonment on 13 September 2014. The 13 workers, all employees at the Kaft Al Sheikh Mosque, were arrested on 16 April 2014 while protesting outside the Ministry. They were seeking recognition recognition The designation by a government agency of a union as the bargaining agent for workers in a given bargaining unit, or acceptance by an employer that its employees can be collectively represented by a union. as Ministry workers. They were apparently arrested for insulting a Ministry employee.

Arbitrary transfer of independent union leaders24-08-2014

The Naga Maday Municipality transferred four executive committee members of its independent workers’ union, Galal Ayed, Khalaf Ahmed Mohamed, Tharwat Mohamed Balash and Abdel Hakeem Amer Ali, to outlying villages against their will. The order came from the President of the municipality on 4 August 2014, after they demanded payment of overdue workers’ compensation. The Municipality President said he did not recognise the existence of the independent unions and threatened the four with imprisonment for inciting workers to go into strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
. The four went on hunger strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
but called it off on the third day after it was agreed they could return to their posts.

On 24 August 2014, the management of the Al Nahar Al Khaled Ready- Made Garments Company in Port Said ordered the transfer of 14 workers to locations that did not match the nature of their work. The transferred workers included members of the executive committee of the independent union independent union A trade union that is not affiliated to a national union. Can also be a union that is not dominated by an employer.

See yellow union

. The union had been pressing management for a year and a half over a series of demands, but management kept delaying its decisions. Workers feared they were planning layoffs.

16 suspended over two-hour stoppage03-06-2014

On 3 June, the National Co of Steel of Port Said, a member of the Al Masren Steel Group, suspended 16 workers. The company’s 500 workers had demanded payment of their 2013 bonus, due in March 2014, but not yet paid. The workers went on strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
for two hours to press for their demands, and in response management called in the police. The company then agreed to negotiate with workers’ representatives. However, management then decided to suspend 16 workers including members of the Executive Council of the independent union independent union A trade union that is not affiliated to a national union. Can also be a union that is not dominated by an employer.

See yellow union

, namely Mohamed Rashad Taha, president; Montaser Anwar, secretary general; Mahmoud Moustafa, treasurer; Mahmoud Gaber, Mohamed Ahmed and Moawad Ibraheem.

Suspended for demanding their rights20-06-2014

The Al Behira Company suspended three workers, Islam Abdel Razek, Farid Ismail and Mohamed Gamal on 20 June 2014 for demanding an emergency grant from the Ministry of Manpower after the company stopped its activities. In 2014 there were several protests by Al Behira Company workers calling for the payment of five months’ salary arrears and protesting against corruption.

Arrested for organising a strike for failure to implement collective agreement19-05-2014
Interference in union affairs18-05-2014

The Egyptian Democratic Labour Congress (EDLC) accused the government of interfering in its internal affairs. The EDLC General Assembly of 11 April 2014 had voted to replace its outgoing president but the Ministry of Manpower refused to recognise the decision, or the election of Saeed Shabban as president and Hani Mohamed Afifi as secretary general of the EDLC. The EDLC believed the government wished to restore control over the union through its own choice of leadership.

In another attack on independent unions, the Minister of Tourism prohibited financial and administrative transactions with free independent unions on 18 May 2014, claiming that they were illegal entities.

Attempted assassination of union leader04-05-2014

Mohamed Omar, a union leader at the Iron and Steel Company, suffered serious injuries in an assassination attempt on 4 May 2014. At eight o’clock in the morning Mohammed Omar was on his way to the workshop where he worked when he was attacked by two masked men who struck him on the head with an iron bar and left on an unmarked motorcycle. Colleagues took him to hospital where he remained unconscious for several hours.

Mohamed Omar was in the company’s sights after he had led a strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
in December 2013. On 22 January he submitted a report to the General Prosecutor accusing Mohamed Saad Negeda, the company Chairman, of bad management and corruption, losing 92 per cent of its capital. He also called on his colleagues to form an independent union independent union A trade union that is not affiliated to a national union. Can also be a union that is not dominated by an employer.

See yellow union

.

Reprisals for strike action27-04-2014

Five workers were arbitrarily transferred to different production units by the Egyptian Coke Company on 27 April 2014 for their role in organising organising The process of forming or joining a trade union, or inducing other workers to form or join one. a strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
. The five concerned were Ayman Sobhi, Ahmed Kassem, Ashraf Mohamed Hassan, Essam Mohamed Hassan and Tharwat Abo Amr. The Prime Minister intervened on their behalf and the transferred workers were returned to their original positions. However they had five days salary deducted from their pay packet, and were denied the seven per cent pay rise.

Three arrested while seeking permission to strike27-04-2014

Three workers at the Propylene & Polypropylene Co. in Port Said were arrested on 27 April 2014 for inciting a strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
. The three were named as Kamal Arafat, Mohammed Ahmed Ibrahim and Mohamed El-Sayed Radi. The arrests were made as they were on their way to the police station to submit a request to organise a strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
following management’s refusal to implement an agreement reached in January 2014. That agreement had been signed to end a three-day strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
following negotiations attended by the Military Councillor.

During that meeting, the company management refused to accept the presence of the independent union independent union A trade union that is not affiliated to a national union. Can also be a union that is not dominated by an employer.

See yellow union

that had been established by workers, who had submitted the necessary documentation to the Ministry of Manpower, until the promulgation of the union freedom law. The company agreed that the budget would be made available in order for workers’ representatives to calculate profit shares. It was also agreed to that it would disclose company regulations and penalty policies that the workers had known nothing about, and finalise the annual appraisals for the payment of annual bonus. However, the company did not respect its own agreement. Charges against the arrested workers were later dropped.

Protest against unfair transfer for solidarity action continues14-04-2014

0n 14 April 2014 three workers at the Iron and Steel Co. Amr Abdul, Rashid Hilal and Hussein Kamal Mohammed continued their protest against an arbitrary transfer by going on hunger strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
. They had been transferred six months earlier for supporting colleagues who were demanding their rights. Amr Abdul and Rashid Hilal were transferred on 18 September 2013 for distributing a leaflet urging workers to start a strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
demanding their delayed profit bonuses, whereas Hussein Kamal Mohammed was transferred on 14 April 2013 for supporting a strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
calling for better protection against the gangs that had attacked the company and killed one worker.

Four arrested for going on strike10-04-2014

On 10 April 2014, security forces arrested four Gas Company workers in Alexandria in an attempt to intimidate them into ending their strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
. Workers at the company had begun the strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
one month earlier in protest at the liquidation of the company owned by the Al Kharafy Group. Negotiations between the company management and workers’ representatives had broken down the previous day. Security forces went to the workers’ homes in order to arrest Mohammed Saleh, Mohammed Abdel-Rahman, Ahmed Adel and Al Saied Al Semman. The company filed complaints against the protesting workers accusing them of inciting a strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
and interrupting workflow. The prosecutor released all four that night.

Nasr City Police attacked workers02-10-2013

On 2 October 2013, Nasr City Police attacked workers holding a peaceful sit-in in from of the Ministry of Manpower demanding the assistance of the Ministry concerning their dismissals. While the court had ruled in favour of the reinstatement of the workers, the company refused to implement the order. The workers came from the companies Faragalla, Petrojet, Petro Trade and Cabu.

Railway Authority suspended workers11-09-2013
Workers arrested21-08-2013

On 21 August 2013, security forces searched the houses of four workers from Suez Cement Company after accusing them of encouraging workers to go on strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
three weeks earlier. One of the workers was arrested. As a result, workers demonstrated in front of the factory calling for the release of their colleague and against police persecution and harassment.

Security forces attacked workers 18-08-2013

On 18 August 2013, security forces attacked workers employed at Sinitar Oil and arrested union leaders. The workers were accused of delaying work and preventing management from entering the company premises. Workers had started a sit-in demanding permanent jobs for temporary workers but denied obstructing the entrance of management to the company.

Workers arrested12-08-2013

On 12 August 2013, armed forced responsible for protecting the industrial area at Itaqa and Sukhna attacked workers who had gone on strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
demanding the reinstatement of 12 workers who had been dismissed arbitrarily. Two union leaders were arrested and others were prevented from entering the company.

Arbitrary dismissals11-08-2013

On 11 August 2013, tens of workers from Kabu Textiles Co. demonstrated inside the company’s premises at Al Hadra, Alexandria, against the board of directors’ decision to dismiss 11 trade unionists because they participated in strikes and demonstrations against the management. The workers filed a complaint at the police station against the board of directors and its arbitrary decision.

Workers arrested 28-05-2013

On 28 May 2013, the general secretary of the independent union independent union A trade union that is not affiliated to a national union. Can also be a union that is not dominated by an employer.

See yellow union

of Alexandria Spinning and Weaving Company was arrested after workers had announced a sit-in following a decision by management to deduct the percentage of social insurances from their salaries with retroactive effect starting from January 2013. Then the management filed a report at el Sadat City Police Station against Abdel Aleem el Bekeemy, President of the independent union independent union A trade union that is not affiliated to a national union. Can also be a union that is not dominated by an employer.

See yellow union

, and Nasef el Shahat, its General Secretary. They were accused of calling the workers to go on strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
and blocking the exit of products from the factory. The workers refused the accusation and emphasised that the factory is running in full capacity.

Workers suspended for going on strike25-05-2013

On 25 May 2013, the chairman of Alexandria Port Authority, Major General Adel Yaseen Hammad, decided to retaliate against 28 workers of the Electronic Department for going on strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
. The workers were suspended for three months and the issue was referred to the Public Prosecutor.

Union members dismissed for demanding salary rise15-05-2013

On 15 May 2013, management of Al Ragaa Co. for Clay Products dismissed 3 board members of the independent union independent union A trade union that is not affiliated to a national union. Can also be a union that is not dominated by an employer.

See yellow union

, namely, Ahmed Sobhy, Ragab Gad and Asaad el Sayed el Nady. The union had called for a 10 per cent salary rise, which the employer first agreed to but then refused to pay. Moreover, management limited their right to free time for trade union activities to one hour every day. Subsequently, the union representatives were dismissed without any warning.

Workers punished for revealing corruption04-04-2013

On 4 April 2013, four union leaders working for the Cairo Airport were transferred to remote areas after calling for the resignation of the Minister of Civil Aviation after he dismissed the chairman of Cairo Airport for referring a corruption file to the Public Prosecutor. More than 50 air supervision officers demonstrated in protest of the transfer of their colleagues.

Police arrested more than 15 workers18-03-2013

On 18 March 2013, police arrested more than 15 workers employed at Alexandria Fertilizers’ Company. The workers held a sit-in inside the premises calling for permanent jobs and higher salaries, given that all workers were employed through a sub-contractor.

Globe Co. refuses to implement collective agreement13-03-2013

On 13 March 2013, management of Globe Co. in el Sadat City dismissed 11 members of the executive council of the independent union independent union A trade union that is not affiliated to a national union. Can also be a union that is not dominated by an employer.

See yellow union

simply because they had called for the implementation of a collective agreement, including clauses with respect to profit sharing, contract length, and paid lunch breaks.

Ideal Standard calls for the dismissal of all union members03-03-2013

On 3 March 2013, management of Ideal Standard Co. at 10th of Ramadan City dismissed 29 workers including board members of the union committee. In response, workers called a sit-in asking for a risk allowance and leave days in accordance with the recommendations of the Ministry of Manpower. Moreover, workers announced they would strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
until their colleagues were reinstated. On the following day, the management decided to stop production completely, cut off gas and electricity and separate the mills from the factory for the morning shift. The company filed a complaint to the Labour Court calling for the dismissal all union members. Management also stopped to provide bus transportation to the workers.

Management retaliates against workers28-01-2013

On 28 January 2013, the Water and Sanitary Sewage Co. of Luxor arbitrarily transferred five engineers from the Projects Department to different departments. Their colleagues announced a sit-in in front of the office of the Projects Department protesting against the company chairman’s decision to transfer their colleagues. Workers believe that the decision was taken by management in retaliation of demands for better salaries.

Retaliation against workers02-01-2013

On 1 January 2013, the company Care Service and Maintenance Co. in Sharm el Sheikh transferred five workers to remote areas. On 2 January 2013, tens of workers announced a sit-in calling for the return of their colleagues and accused the company of retaliating against workers for demanding better salaries and paid annual leave. The sit-in came to an end when the company management promised them to return their colleagues and to abstain from dismissing or transferring workers arbitrarily.

National Vegetable Oil Company dismisses union members13-01-2014

Workers at the Cargill-owned National Vegetable Oil Company in Alexandria established their union on 1 March 2012 in the wake of a dispute over the profit-sharing distribution to employees. Following the satisfactory resolution of the dispute, constructive industrial relations industrial relations The individual and collective relations and dealings between workers and employers at the workplace, as well as the institutional interaction between unions, employers and also the government.

See social dialogue
were established in the plant. This ended in August 2013 when a new management team was brought in. First they announced that the agreements signed with the previous management were null and void and a new employee relations policy would be introduced. Then they began harassing workers, looking for minor infractions, issuing warnings and threatening workers with dismissal. To protest the arbitrary punishments and the deteriorating work environment, the workers held a sit-in on 15 December 2013. Management’s response was to shut the factory and put 84 workers (out of 122 in the plant) on extended leave. The workers continued the sit-in in the plant until December 23, when they were forcibly removed by thugs with attack dogs. The factory was re-opened on January 13, 2014 and replacement labour hired in. While management prevents them from returning to work, the workers maintain their picket in the factory parking lot. In defiance of the law, Cargill has begun issuing dismissal letters to workers.

Four trade union leaders abducted31-01-2014

In January 2014, security forces freed four trade union leaders abducted while on their way to a pro-constitution conference in the Red Sea city of Sharm El-Sheikh. The General Federation of Trade Unions (GFTU) announced that the General Union of Tourism leader, his deputy and secretary-general, and a labour ministry official had been taken hostage by unidentified armed assailants in Oyoun Moussa, a few miles from the Ahmed Hamdi tunnel that connects the Sinai Peninsula to the city of Suez. They were on their way to Sharm El-Sheikh to attend a federation conference on the newly amended constitution.

Brutal attack against workers at Portland cement factory in Egypt24-09-2013

450 workers began the strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
action on 14 February demanding the company to honor the promises it made in January to provide permanent job contracts and improved pay and bonuses.

In the early hours of 17 February, Central Security Forces stormed workers conducting a sit-in at the Portland Cement Factory in Alexandria, injuring dozens of workers. The workers were performing dawn prayers when the raid was launched. They were severely beaten by the security personnel and attacked by dogs leaving dozens injured and 4 in intensive care.

100 workers were arrested and 18 remained in detention for several days including 2 who were seriously injured during the attack. The workers were facing charges of hindering foreign investment and detention of hostages (management) at the factory.

Striking workers attacked by security forces24-09-2013

The forces of the Third Field Army attacked the workers of “Suez Steel Company” who were demanding the reinstatement of their twelve sacked colleagues.

They were also protesting against the company’s board chairman who said that an additional 40 people will also be sacked.

The workers were surprised by the forces of the Third Field Army who besieged their sit-in with a number of army vehicles and soldiers; preventing two workers from entering the company. When they went out to help their colleagues to gain entry, the security forces attacked them and beat them with excessive violence, injuring two protesters and detaining another two workers in “Attaka” police station.

Qena strikers detained for four days13-04-2013

The detainees were part of a group of workers at Ganoub El Wadi Petroleum Company who have been on strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
and camping out in front of the company since February, demanding fulltime contracts.

Strikers’ families claim they were taken from their homes in the early morning
Three of them were released on the 13th of April and the rest were held at the Qena Security Directorate until after midnight. The detainees were accused of resisting the authorities.

Security forces removed the strikers’ tents near the petroleum company and forcefully opened the company headquarters on the 14th after remaining closed for almost two months on account of the sit-in.

Workers on strike attacked in a cement factory05-05-2013

On the 3rd of May, more than 350 workers from a cement factory in Aswan, Upper Egypt announced a strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
after factory management refused to negotiate the demands put forth by workers. On the 5th of May, the factory’s management decided to end the strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
by force and the workers were attacked by security personnel from the factory who used live ammunition to intimidate the striking workers.

Dismissal of 15 striking workers at Cairo Airport Company05-06-2013

Wael El-Maadawy, the Minister of Civil Aviation ordered the dismissal of 15 workers at Cairo Airport Company that participated in an earlier strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
demanding better financial conditions. He accused them of instigation and disrupting work operations.

Interference in collective bargaining15-01-2013

The worker’s spokesperson in ABB Arab Contractors Electrical Industries was forced to resign when he tried to conduct negotiations between the company and workers regarding mass dismissals on 15 January 2013.

Interference in trade union premises19-08-2013
Interference by employers11-11-2012

Ataef Mohamed, President of the Independent Regional Federation of the Independent Unions in South Egypt and responsible for CTUWS Office in Naji’ Hamady, was transferred to a different workplace, 60 kilometers away from his house without any justification on 11 November 2012.

Employers violate collective agreements31-07-2012

Nile Spinning and Weaving Company refused to pay wage increases that had been agreed in a collective agreement in July 2012. 34 of the workers who went on strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
against this violation were dismissed.

Interference in demonstrations03-10-2012

Security forces arrested 14 taxi drivers who demonstrated in front of the General Administration of Traffic at Salah Salim Street calling for lower taxes and fines imposed on taxi drivers on 3 October 2012. Ten of them were released on the same day and the other four were released on bail the next day.

Arrest and detention of trade unionists24-09-2012

On 24 September 2012, seven nurses employed at Zagazig University Hospital were arrested for having called a strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
after wage negotiations with the director of the hospital failed. Four nurses were released and the other three remained in jail for 4 days under investigation: Ashraf Abdel Monem, Mohamed el Sayed and Ayman Almaz.

Discrimination against trade union members16-09-2012

On 16 September 2012, Rashad Shabaan and Aly Hassan Kenawy were dismissed after participating in a sit-in when Al-Ameriya Spinning and Weaving Company did not pay their wages. The court asked the company to reinstate them and to pay their wages.

Minister allows old official union to represent Egypt at international conferences31-12-2011

In May, the Minister of Manpower, Ahmed al-Borei, announced that the official Egyptian Trade Union Federation (ETUF) would continue to represent Egypt in international conferences, despite the State Council’s ruling that the ETUF’s board of directors was to be dissolved.

Official union tries to block workers’ involvement in the revolution31-12-2011

When the 25 January revolution began, the immediate response of the official Egyptian Trade Union Federation (ETUF) was to set up committees to stop any group of workers wanting to go on strike strike The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms.

See general strike, intermittent strike, rotating strike, sit-down strike, sympathy strike, wildcat strike
and join the demonstrators, according to Kamal Abou Aita, president of the independent Real Estate Tax Authority Union RETA . The money the ETUF had accumulated through compulsory union dues and government funding was used to pay the thugs that descended on the streets to terrorise the population. The ETUF representative for the same sector as RETA stated in front of the cameras that they were going to punish the protestors and break the revolution, hurling insults at RETA members, before being stopped by the revolutionary demonstrators.

Trade union rights to be kept on hold31-12-2011

Shortly after the ousting of President Mubarak and his government, the new Minister of Manpower, Ismail Fahmy, stated in February that “the issue of trade union rights is kept on hold until such a time that the labour code is revised… the ministry will continue to work closely with the ETUF (Egyptian Trade Union Federation) and its President Hussein Megawer”. Mr. Fahmy is a former treasurer of ETUF, the national centre that was controlled by the Mubarak regime.

ILO criticises government for interfering in trade union affairs31-12-2010

At its June conference the ILO International Labour Organization A tripartite United Nations (UN) agency established in 1919 to promote working and living conditions. The main international body charged with developing and overseeing international labour standards.

See tripartism, ITUC Guide to international trade union rights
criticised the Egyptian government for interference in labour affairs. The organisation was particularly critical of the Egyptian security forces for their role in dispersing recent labour protests. The ILO International Labour Organization A tripartite United Nations (UN) agency established in 1919 to promote working and living conditions. The main international body charged with developing and overseeing international labour standards.

See tripartism, ITUC Guide to international trade union rights
noted that the Egyptian government failed to respond to previous complaints by the organisation about repeated interference in the affairs of Egypt’s national labour force and that Egypt continued to violate Conventions 87 and 98.

Employers and authorities remain anti-union while pressure for change mounts31-12-2010

The wave of worker unrest that began in 2006 continued during the year. Increasingly workers chose to protest in the streets, where it was harder for the authorities to mistreat or ignore them. Strikers at the workplace tend to be severely beaten by the police, on the grounds that their action is “illegal”. From February onwards protesting workers camped out outside the parliament and other government buildings demanding higher wages and other rights. In some cases the state security agencies reportedly urged ministries to meet the workers demands in the hope it would contain the protests, and prevent protestors joining forces with the movement for democratic change. On 19 February MP Nasha’t el-Qassass from President Mubarak’s National Democratic Party (NDP) called for protestors to be shot. (He was later referred to a disciplinary committee).

Collective bargaining ineffective or non-existent31-12-2010

The Minister of Manpower and Migration oversees and monitors collective negotiations and agreements. The government sets wages, benefits and job classifications for public sector and government employees. However, the National Wages Council has been criticised for failing to carry out a comprehensive salary review, instead only intervening when the situation becomes acute in a specific sector. One independent trade unionist observed that “there is a complete breakdown of collective negotiation tools at the national level as well as in the industrial sectors and the work sites”. In the private sector, where the Egyptian Trade Union Federation (ETUF) representation is very weak, employers avoid collective bargaining collective bargaining The process of negotiating mutually acceptable terms and conditions of employment as well as regulating industrial relations between one or more workers’ representatives, trade unions, or trade union centres on the one hand and an employer, a group of employers or one or more employers’ organisations on the other.

See collective bargaining agreement
, and fail to respect government decisions on the minimum wage, social security and other issues. The absence of a bona fide national trade union center makes it very difficult for workers to settle disputes through bargaining; hence, there is a tendency for them to resort to protests and strikes.

Special Economic Zones31-12-2009

The private employers in Egypt’s Special Economic Zones continue to show very little respect for labour rights. Most workers in the Tenth of Ramadan City zone are forced to sign letters of resignation before beginning employment so that they can be fired at the employers’ convenience. Working conditions are very bad, with long hours, low pay and poor safety standards, but it is difficult for labour activists to do anything about it, given the restrictions on collective bargaining collective bargaining The process of negotiating mutually acceptable terms and conditions of employment as well as regulating industrial relations between one or more workers’ representatives, trade unions, or trade union centres on the one hand and an employer, a group of employers or one or more employers’ organisations on the other.

See collective bargaining agreement
and the ban on strikes.

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